Glossary of Terms
San Diego County Childhood Obesity Initiative Media domain and
staff worked together with other domain leadership to create a
glossary of terms commonly used by partners and experts working in
obesity prevention. The purpose of this glossary is to serve
as a resource for all partners in order to develop common language
when discussing the environmental and policy aspects of obesity
prevention with media, the community, and other stakeholders.
Candy Buy Back: A program where children can
bring in their surplus unopened candy into participating dental and
pediatric offices. Participating offices will give the kids $1.00
for each pound of candy brought in during the days following
Halloween/Harvest celebrations. Participating shipping stores will
ship the candy "at cost" to Operation Gratitude who ships
the candy to our US troops: http://www.candybuyback.org/
Food Stamps: The federal Supplemental Nutrition
Assistance Program (SNAP), now known as "Cal
Fresh" in California, is a program that helps improve the
health and well being of qualified households and individuals by
providing them a means to meet their nutritional needs. For more
information go to: http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/foodstamps/
Incentive Programs: Formal programs used to
promote or encourage specific actions or behaviors by a specific
group of people. Incentive Programs may be used by
businesses to motivate and encourage employees, and
by stores in
order to attract and keep customers.
Permitting Processes: The
steps and/or procedures needed in order for a permit
(a written order granting special permission
to do something) to be issued.
SNAP: The federal Supplemental Nutrition
Assistance Program (SNAP) is now known as "Cal
Fresh" in California. It is a program that helps improve the
health and well being of qualified households and individuals by
providing them a means to meet their nutritional needs. For more
information go to: http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/foodstamps/
Accessible Active Transportation: Having a safe
environment and the means to participate in any form of active
human-powered transportation, such as walking, cycling, using a
wheelchair, in-line skating, or skateboarding.
Agency Strategic Plans: An organization or
agency process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making
decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy,
including its capital, resources, and people.
City and County General Plans: The policy of
acceptable land uses in each jurisdiction. Each city and county
adopts and updates their General Plan to guide the growth and land
development of their community, for both the current period and the
long term. The General Plan is the foundation for establishing
goals, purposes, zoning, and activities allowed on each land parcel
to provide compatibility and continuity to the entire region as
well as each individual neighborhood.
Community Plans: A public document that works
together with the General Plan to provide location-based policies
and recommendations in community planning areas. Community plans
are written to refine the General Plan's citywide policies,
designate land uses and housing densities, and include additional
site-specific recommendations as needed.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
(CPTED): Proper design and effective use
of the built environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear
and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of
Health Impact Assessment (HIA): A
means of assessing the health impacts of policies, plans and
projects in diverse economic sectors using quantitative,
qualitative, and participatory techniques. Health Impact
Assessments help decision-makers make choices about alternatives
and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote
Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) Cities
Campaign: Campaign in California that works with cities to
adopt policies that will improve the physical activity and food
environments for residents.
High-Risk Populations: A specific group of
people that are more likely to be exposed to or are more sensitive
to a certain condition than the general population.
Level of Service Standards: The minimum
requirements for the quality of public services provided by the
Redevelopment: A process authorized under
California law that enables local government entities to revitalize
deteriorated and blighted areas in their jurisdictions.
Redevelopment agencies develop a plan and provide the initial
funding to launch revitalization of identified areas.
Regional Comprehensive Plan
(RCP): The long-term planning framework for a
region. It provides a broad context, which dictates public policy
in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and
housing. Comprehensive plans typically encompass large geographical
areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a long-term time
Regional Food Systems Policies: A comprehensive
food planning process at the community and regional levels that
include policy changes to increase regional and local access to
Regional Transportation Plan
(RTP): A long-term blueprint of a
region's transportation system. The RTP presents the
overarching policies and goals, system concepts for all
modes of travel, funding strategies, and local implementation
Safe Routes to School (SRTS): Programs
that enable community leaders, schools and parents across the
United States to improve safety and encourage more children,
including children with disabilities, to safely walk and bicycle to
Subdivision Regulations: Local ordinances which
specify the standards and conditions under which a tract of land
can be subdivided. Originally directed at street layout and
construction specifications, many regulations now stipulate the
general design of street lighting and signs, sidewalks, sewage
disposal, and water-supply systems; others require the dedication
of land for schools, parks, and other community facilities within
Workplace Lactation Policies: Policy that
provides for breastfeeding accommodations at work including a
reasonable amount of break time and access to clean, private spaces
Zoning Ordinances: Laws passed
by local governments regulating the size, type, structure, nature,
and use of buildings. Often referred to as zoning laws and zoning
regulations, and divided into those which regulate the height or
bulk of buildings within certain designated zones or districts and
those which prescribe the type of buildings which may be
constructed, and the use to which buildings within certain
designated zones or districts may be put.
BMI: This is an abbreviation for Body Mass
Index. A person's BMI is calculated from a their weight and height.
Scientists believe that the BMI provides a reliable indicator of
body fatness for most people. It is used to screen people for
overweight and obesity that may lead to health problems.
BMI Prevalence: The frequency
of overweight and obesity based on Body Mass Index
Cultural Competency: Refers to an ability to
understand, communicate with, and interact effectively with people
of different cultures.
Community Competency: Taking into account the
complex experiences, circumstances, history, diversity,
environment, resources, and culture that shape the communities
served by those seeking to improve communities.
Evidence-based Practice Guidelines: A series of
recommendations on clinical care, supported by the best available
evidence in the clinical literature. Evidence-based practice
involves ongoing systematic review of the
science supporting the diagnosis and treatment planning for a
condition by clinicians and patients.
Obesity Screening, Prevention, and
Treatment: The United States Preventive Services Task
Force (USPSTF) recommends that clinicians screen children
ages six (6) to eighteen (18) years for obesity and refer as
appropriate to programs to improve their weight status.
Quality Improvement Organizations: Monitor the
appropriateness, effectiveness, and quality of care provided to
people enrolled in MediCal, Medicare, and those enrolled with
health insurance / managed care organizations.
Quality Assessment Measures for Health
Insurers: The National Committee for Quality Assurance
(NCQA) is a private, not-for-profit organization dedicated
to improving health care quality. Since its founding in 1990,
NCQA has been a central figure in driving improvement throughout
the health care system, helping to elevate the issue of health care
quality to the top of the national agenda. Health Insurers use NCQA
measures of health to improve the quality of healthcare for insured
Screening: An assessment or investigation of
something; for instance, looking for people with a particular
problem or feature, such as obesity.
Surveillance Efforts: Community, county, state
and national level continuous data collection, analysis and
interpretation with the purpose of planning, implementing, and
evaluating public health practice; one example is the collection of
Body Mass Index (BMI) information.
Uniform Nutrition Messaging: Health Agencies
using consistent, reliable, and valid nutrition messages in their
Early Childhood Domain
Childcare providers: People that care for
children for more than a half day outside of the child's
home. Childcare providers can include family childcare,
center based childcare, and preschool.
Center-Based childcare providers: Center-based
care may also be labeled child or daycare centers, nursery schools,
or preschools. These facilities care for children in groups outside
of a residential setting. They may have different sponsors,
including universities, schools, churches, social service agencies,
independent owners or chains, and employers. Center-based
programs can care for infants, toddlers, preschool-aged children,
school-aged children and teens with disabilities.
Exempt childcare: Providers caring for children
from only one other family are exempt from licensing requirements
Farm to Preschool: Farm to Preschool is
designed to influence early childhood eating habits and expand the
farm to school network of programs to bring farm fresh foods to a
range of childcare and preschool programs. Goals of the program
include the following: replace unhealthy snacks, meals, and
beverages at preschools with locally grown fruits and vegetables
from farmers and farmers' markets; and provide age- and
culturally-appropriate nutrition curricula for preschoolers and
their parents, including Harvest of the Month activities, taste
tests and cooking demos, visits to farms and farmers' markets, and
a presentation series for parents given by bilingual doctors.
Demonstration sites will be established to disseminate the program
to other interested preschools, day care centers and family
homes. Ultimately, program-developed wellness policies for
preschools will help establish nutrition standards for these
schools and community organization around fresh and healthy food
access will be facilitated.
Licensed Family Childcare Providers: A family
childcare provider is a person who uses their residence to provide
paid childcare on a regular, ongoing basis. Children are brought to
the caregiver's home for care (vs. a caregiver who goes to the
child's home to provide care). In California, one adult can
watch up to six (6) children, two (2) adults can watch up to
fourteen (14) children. Home childcare providers should be licensed
by the state and the care providers should have basic training in
first aid, safety and childcare. Many in-home providers also have
training in early education.
Nannies: People who care for children in the
child's home. In California, nannies do not need to be
licensed, but it is recommended that they be TrustLined. http://www.trustline.org/
Preschool for All (PFA): A
demonstration of an effective universal preschool system is
currently underway in San Diego County; it is called the San
Diego County Preschool for All (SDCPFA) Demonstration Project.
The project is being developed under the leadership of the San
Diego County Office of Education with funding provided by First 5
San Diego (http://www.first5sandiego.org
/)who allocated thirty (30)
million dollars for implementation. Key features of the
- Quality preschool experiences
- Inclusive of children with special needs
- Families can choose from a variety of preschool settings
- Socially, culturally, and linguistically appropriate early
- Professional growth of teachers
Preschool Providers: Preschool is a type of
center-based care for children two and a half (2.5) to five (5)
years of age. It is a half-day program and sometimes has an
TrustLine: TrustLine is a database of nannies
and baby-sitters that have cleared criminal background checks in
California. It is the only authorized screening program of
in-home caregivers in the state with access to fingerprint records
at the California Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI). http://www.trustline.org/
USDA Child and Adult Food Program: The United
States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Child and Adult
Care Food Program plays a vital role in improving the quality of
child care and making it more affordable for many low-income
families. Child & Adult Care Food Program
(CACFP) reaches even further to provide meals to children
residing in emergency shelters, and snacks and suppers to youths
participating in eligible afterschool care programs.
Competitive (or a la carte) foods:
Foods available or for sale anywhere and anytime at a school that
are not part of the National School Lunch Program. In California,
these foods are regulated by state nutrition standards spelled out
in SB 12 & SB 965.
Electrolyte Replacement Beverage
Sports drinks such as PowerAde® and Gatorade® are
currently allowed to be sold at middle schools and high schools in
California provided they contain no more than forty -two (42) grams
of added sweetener per twenty (20) ounce serving.
Fitness Test: All students in grades five (5),
seven (7) and nine (9) are tested on six (6) components of physical
fitness using the Fitnessgram® assessment, developed by the Cooper
Institute. The six components are Aerobic Capacity, Body
Composition, Abdominal Strength, Trunk Extensor Strength, Upper
Body Strength and Flexibility. Fitness test results by county,
district and school are available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/pf/pftprogram.asp
Free and Reduced Eligibility (FRE)
Rate: The percentage of students in a school or district
qualifying for free or reduced-price school meal under the National
School Lunch Program.
Local School Wellness Policy
(LSWP): A federal
requirement for school districts participating in the National
School Lunch Program starting in 2007. Requires a Wellness Council
to develop, implement, monitor and report on goals for Nutrition
Education, Physical Education, all foods and beverages available on
campus, and other school-based activities designed to promote
National School Lunch Program
(NSLP): A federally assisted meal
program operating in public and nonprofit private schools and
residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally
balanced, low-cost or free lunches, breakfasts and snacks to
children each school day. The program was established under the
National School Lunch Act, signed by President Harry Truman in
Physical activity: Bodily movement of any type
and may include recreational, fitness and sport activities such as
jumping rope, playing soccer, lifting weights, as well as daily
activities such as walking to the store, taking the stairs or
raking the leaves. The National Association of Sport and Physical
Education (NASPE) http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/
recommends school-age children accumulate at least sixty (60)
minutes and up to several hours of physical activity per day while
avoiding prolonged periods of inactivity.
Physical Education: A standards-based,
sequential course of study that provides learning opportunities,
appropriate instruction, meaningful and challenging content for all
children on body movement, sports skills, and lifelong fitness. The
California Department of Education mandates two hundred (200)
minutes of physical education each ten (10) days for students in
grades one through six (1-6) and four hundred (400) minutes each
ten (10) days for students in grades seven through twelve (7-12).
SB 12 and SB 965: California legislation passed
in 2005 that set standards limiting the amount of calories, fat,
saturated fat and sugar in foods (SB12) and beverages (SB 965) sold
on a school campus from thirty (30) minutes before until thirty
(30) minutes after the school day. http://www.californiaprojectlean.org/
Wellness Councils / Committees: At the district
or school level, a group that meets regularly to support
implementation, monitoring and reporting on progress in achieving
goals of Local School Wellness Policy. Members should included
district and school administrators, school board members, students,
parents, physical education, nursing, after-school and child
nutrition staff, and community-based organization
Grassroots: A movement driven by the politics
or desires of a community. The term implies that the creation of
the movement and the group supporting it are natural and
spontaneous, highlighting the differences between this and a
movement that is orchestrated by traditional power structures.
Grassroots movements are often at the local level, as many
volunteers in the community give their time to support the local
movement, which can lead to helping the national (or a larger)
Supportive Environments: Physical, social,
spiritual, economic, and political environments that promote and
Advocacy - Public support for, or
recommendation of, a particular cause or policy.
Behavioral Influence - Any behavior that is
related to or leads to the development of childhood obesity.
Built Environments - Encompasses a range of
physical and social elements that make up the structure of a
community and may influence obesity such as buildings, spaces, and
products that are created or modified by people, including includes
homes, schools, workplaces, park/recreation areas, greenways,
business areas, and transportation systems.
Cardiovascular Disease: A general term that
usually refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood
vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or
Childhood Obesity: An excessive accumulation of
body fat. Children whose weight exceeds the 95th percentile
for their age, gender, and height on the BMI-for-age chart.
(BMI means Body Mass Index). Childhood Obesity increases the risk
for Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol, depression and low-self
esteem, and tends to continue into adulthood.
Childhood Obesity Prevention: Prevention of
childhood obesity includes efforts to prevent the occurrence of
obesity in children, such as risk factor reduction; in addition,
efforts are employed to stop its progress and prevent chronic
diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which are known
consequences of childhood obesity.
Childhood Overweight: A child or adolescent who
has a Body Mass Index (BMI) at or above the 85th
percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the
same age and sex.
Chronic diseases: - Generally of long duration
and generally slow progression; chronic diseases, such as heart
disease, cancer, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and
disability in the United States.
Community Partners: Those individuals and
organizations in the San Diego community who choose to participate
by becoming a partner in the San Diego County Childhood Obesity
Initiative (COI) to jointly work on defined goals and
action items in the domains of Government, Healthcare,
Schools/After-school, Early Childhood, Community, Media and
Culturally Appropriate: Using a specific
culture's acceptable expressions, standards of behavior, and
thoughts in interventions and educational materials.
Diabetes: Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease,
is often simply referred to as diabetes-is a group of metabolic
diseases in which a person has high blood sugar,
either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because
cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
Ecological Model: This model focuses on
understanding the environment in which people, together with their
families and communities, make health related choices in their
Environmental Change: Adjusting the factors in
the surroundings of an individual that will support him/her in his
family and community so that the easy choice will more likely be a
Epidemic: Affecting or tending to affect a
disproportionately large number of individuals within a population,
community, or region at the same time.
Health Promotion: Health promotion is the
process of enabling people to increase control over, and to
improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual
behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental
interventions that encourage healthy choices.
Individual, Interpersonal, Organizational and Community
Levels: The ecological model includes several levels where
behavior change occurs, including factors affecting what decisions
are made and behavior that occurs at the level of the person, their
interactions with other people as well as within organizations such
as schools and workplaces and in the community.
Infrastructure: The fundamental facilities and
systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and
communication systems, power plants, and schools.
Joint Use Policy/Agreement: A formal agreement
between two separate government entities, often a school district
and a city or county, setting forth the terms and conditions for
the shared use of public property. Typically, each party under a
joint use agreement helps fund the development, operation, and
maintenance of the facilities that will be shared.
Literature Review: A body of text that aims to
review the critical points of current knowledge and/or
methodological approaches on a particular topic. Literature
reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new
or original experimental work.
Multidisciplinary: Combining or involving
several academic disciplines or professional specializations in an
approach to a topic or problem.
Operational Excellence: A philosophy of
leadership, teamwork, and problem solving resulting in continuous
improvement throughout the organization by focusing on the needs of
the customer, empowering employees, and optimizing existing
activities in the process.
Physical Environment: All objective structural
factors external to the individual that both positively and
negatively influences a person's behavior.
Policy and Environmental Changes: Policies are
laws, regulations, and rules (both formal and informal) that can
support or inhibit healthy lifestyles. Environmental changes may
affect the economic, social, or physical surroundings.
Policy Development: Developing policy generally
involves research, analysis, consultation, and synthesis of
information to produce recommendations. It should also involve an
evaluation of options against a set of criteria used to assess each
Population: The total number of individuals
occupying an area or making up a whole.
Prevalence: A statistical concept referring to
the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular
population at a given time.
Public/Private Partnership: Describes a
government service or private business venture, which is funded and
operated through a partnership or government, and one or more
private sector companies.
Social Environment: The part of the human
surroundings that have to do with person-to-person relationships.
This includes the culture within which people interact.
Stakeholders: A person, group, organization, or
system that affects or can be affected by an organization's
Supportive Environment: A person's surroundings
that provide for easy access to healthful foods and which allow
time and places to be physically active.
and programs designed to maintain
of well-being through proper diet,
physical activity, stress
management, and illness
WIC (Women, Infants, and Children): A
program of the US Federal Government program that provides grants
to States for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and
nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and
non-breastfeeding postpartum women, and to infants and children up
to age five who are found to be at nutritional risk.